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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

adj. 深思的,体贴的

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Much of the decline in Chinese imports stems from lower commodity prices, which in turn are a result of falling overall demand from China, long the world’s biggest consumer of materials such as iron ore, coal and copper.
'In the next 12 to 24 months, unless any of these bottlenecks are solved, we could see WTI going down to $50 a barrel, to incentivize producers to slow down,' she said
But Michael DeFranco, chair of Baker & McKenzie’s M&A practice, hailed the Chinese group’s investment in developed economies.

Two Chinese universities, University of Hong Kong and University of Macao, squeezed into the top 10 of the world's most international universities in 2016, according to a new list published by Times Higher Education on Thursday.
4.你的同事会泄密。
Once you grow your hair slightly longish, be sure to play with it at every opportunity.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

“双节大促”将火热袭来 互联网冲击家装市场

Mr Baweja’s extensive analysis on the changing nature of globalisation suggests the prime factor behind the weakness of global trade growth (which for a long time expanded at twice the rate of global GDP) has been a slowdown in investment.
The January-to-November period in the United States this year was the warmest first 11 months of any year on record for the contiguous states. And 2012 will likely surpass 1998 as the warmest year on record for the nation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
《失常》,导演查理·考夫曼(Charlie Kaufman)与杜克·约翰逊(Duke Johnson)。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

梅瑟威一场拳赛的要价可以高达7000万英镑,但是他去年的收入只排在榜单上位居第16位。去年梅瑟威的拳赛收入达到了2000万英镑,此外他的服装品牌TMT(The Money Team)也给他贡献了500万英镑。
flimsy
出口复苏可能在一定程度上化解人们对于新兴市场国家的悲观看法。在本世纪初的那些年,许多新兴市场国家曾把出口强劲增长作为经济快速发展的跳板,后来出口由盛转衰了。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • absolutely
  • 富森·美家居冲击IPO 赶超红星美凯龙成未知数?
  • 5、邦德具备美女约会种种要求。乐衷于性的女人更喜欢“坏男人”-邦德属于此类。讲究的女人喜欢阳刚男人,寻求一夜情的女人喜欢外型帅气、主动进攻的男人-非邦德莫属。
  • 天猫将清退200家店铺 木门企业警惕与国外品牌靠近乎
  • 政策之下家具业的转型 未来发展之路如何走?
  • 《一名拍摄黑手党的西西里摄影师和她的“鲜血档案”》(A Sicilian Photographer of the Mafia and Her ‘Archive of Blood’)
    I'm assuming they'll end up around the No. 10 pick at this point; it's hard to get an instant franchise player that low, and New Orleans doesn't have all the time in the world.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 盘点:卫浴企业五大营销策划方案 建立品牌传播是关键, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京多家建材市场被检出不合格产品

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

个税改革首月减税316亿元

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 这是乔布斯从2000年6月到2008年9月的照片合集,显示了他健康状况的巨大变化。
    在法国商学院当中,图卢兹商学院(Toulouse Business School)的进步最大,上升了14位,原因是该商学院首次进入了EMBA榜单。
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    在这个风云变幻的世界,詹姆斯·邦德俘获了不少铁杆粉丝,是至今为数不多的仍在续拍的电影之一。在人们的意识里,无论发生什么事情,新的007电影依然会拍下去。
    Banking
    去年我国内地人口总数达13.7亿,与2010年进行人口普查时相比,人口数量增加了3377万,这意味着人口年增长率为0.5%。
    在接下来几年里,大型住宅楼盘必须遵守第87号本地法(Local Law 87)——该法要求楼盘审核能源使用量,并保持系统以最高效率运行。住宅楼是纽约市最大的温室气体排放源,其排放量占总量的37%。“能源是一大热门话题。楼盘怎样提高能源效率?”管理着超过500处房产的FirstService Residential New York的总裁丹·沃泽尔(Dan Wurtzel)说,“如果运营预算的三分之一来自能源耗费,而现在你可以降低这块成本,那么上涨维护费的压力就减轻了。”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 楼市调控初现效果 11月多个热点城市房价下跌
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 电商时代:涂料产业绝处逢生 线下销售渠道该如何优化

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

室内环境:这栋灰泥粉饰的两层楼当代住宅建于2005年。屋内是通风的开敞式空间设计;白色墙壁与红色瓷砖地面形成了对比。屋内有几扇推拉门正对着威尔明顿河(Wilmington River)边的栎树林和湿地。
捷蓝航空公司发言人珍妮·德文(Jenny Dervin)说,“我们75%的航班在东北部起降,无论是纽约还是波士顿,早上航班的延误都可能会影响这架飞机的整条航线。”美国东北部特别容易受到冬季暴风雪的影响,导致航班延误。
公司:(Wonderbag)Natural Balance公司
此外,城镇人口也有所增加,现在已经占到总人口的55.88%,相比2010年普查时增加了6.2%。
1.中国经济。中国是世界上第二大石油消费国,并且已经在2013年底超过美国,成为全球最大液体燃料进口国。对于油价来说,更重要的一点取决于中国石油消费量在今后几年的增长态势。美国能源情报署预计,2020年中国的日均原油消费量将比2012年高出300万桶,约占这段时间内全球新增需求的四分之一。尽管还存在很多不确定因素,但中国经济刚刚送走了令人失望的第四季度。最终,中国2014年全年经济增长率跌至逾25年来的最低点。中国经济能否停止减速,这一点我们难以得知,但它的走势将对2015年的油价产生巨大影响。
而新上榜的中国公司则包括万科、中铁公司和中国太平保险。
面试官也会犯错:

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • intimidating
  • 2小时内烧成陶瓷 景德镇陶瓷产业迎来全新时代
  • "When the actual dependency ratio of pension insurance gets down to three to one, the payment cannot be lower than 17 percent. If it drops to two to one ratio, it means that everyone is going to pay 25 percent. The financial burden gets heavier when the dependency ratio gets lower. The restructuring of pension system must be finalized in two years." Yang said.
    Please accept my season\'s greetings.
  • 国家税务总局:确保减税降费政策“落地生根”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 2.喷气背包
    The number of people holding degrees from colleges or universities reached 170.93m, which means there were 12,445 people with an advanced education per 100,000 people in 2015, up from 8,930 in 2010. The number of people who had attended a senior high school also increased, and the number who had only completed lower-level education fell.
  • Walt Disney Pictures and Lucasfilm have promised a Star Wars film every winter after the release of Star Wars: The Force Awakens. These movies will be spin-offs to the main films.
    这是自从2001年来第一次由一名既不是小梅瑟威、也不是泰格·伍兹的运动员,荣登收入榜第一名。
  • ['gri:nhaus]
    威尼斯位于意大利东北部,约建成于公元5世纪,由118个小岛组成,凭借其迷人的水上景观、多样的建筑风格和琳琅满目的艺术品而闻名于世。
  • 3.Artificial Pancreas
    Money Matters
    The number of Web users grew by 42.99 million in 2016, or 6.2 percent from the previous year, accounting for 53.2 percent of China's total population, the report said.
  • 在此背景下,白不仅仅是指肤色。你可以将其定义为“人种-民族多数”的成员,但这样有点拗口。它的真正含义是不会被定义为“他者”的特权。
    Such highlighted talents also include cult director David Lynch of the United States and the versatile Taiwan filmmaker Sylvia Chang, whose representative works are on the recommended lineup.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 长沙上周8253套住宅入市 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京西城将建2900套安置房

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

浙江质监局2015年室内照明开关抽查结果

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

家居企业频出标准 领衔规范还是自我炒作?

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

2014年建材家居行业规模将达4万亿

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Tuesday’s event at Apple’s new Cupertino headquarters is expected to reveal its much-anticipated 10th-anniversary iPhone, offering significant upgrades to the smartphone’s display, camera and overall design.
  • People walk in the rain along the swollen Potomac River in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, DC, on Tuesday.
  • 清华全玻璃真空太阳集热管获科技部大奖

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 相比之下,十年前名列榜单前20的城市中有6个亚洲城市、10个欧洲城市和4个美国城市。这项调查计算了93个国家的131个城市的生活成本,研究结果用于企业计算转移员工的成本。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Swift has also been having quite the year, claiming the No. 2 spot with $80 million. More than a year after the launch of 1989—the top release of 2014 with over 3.6 million copies sold—her latest single, “Wildest Dreams,” has ascended to the top of the charts, boosted by a music video with Scott Eastwood. But it was the beginning of her epic 1989 World Tour that placed her so close to the top of this list.
    Still, the clock is ticking and President Trump is doing his best to add dramatic tension by threatening a withdrawal.
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  • The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Liberian peace activist Leymah Gbowee and Yemeni women's rights advocate Tawakkul Karman.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • "The editors thought the articles were being sent out to genuine reviewers in the discipline," he said. "Following our investigation and communication with the real reviewers, they confirmed they did not conduct the peer review."
  • 70大中城市房价涨幅稳中回落
  • 查斯特·班宁顿

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • “水龙头铅超标”事件刺激行业强制标准出台
  • Household substance abuse
  • 房地产行业薪酬普遍上涨
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

暂别火爆期 陶瓷业进入新一轮低迷周期

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 营改增试点前夕 部分房地产项目抓紧清盘
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 83.2%受访北上广深青年关注所在城市积分落户政策
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

成功的CEO都保持着都极有规律的生活,他们每天早起,锻炼身体,身边会放一些点心补充能量,每周拿出几个晚上进行社交。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

在即将结束的2014年,标普500指数再次实现亮眼增长,而那些本欲跑赢该指数的基金经理们,表现则没那么出色。Lipper公司称,截止11月底,85%的活跃股票型共同基金经理业绩低于标普500指数。而在正常的年份里,跑赢该指数的基金经理比例是今年的两倍,也就是说,通常只有约三分之二的基金表现不如标普500指数。Lipper公司称,这是30年来活跃基金经理相对大盘表现最差的一年。
这部电影也是为了纪念2005年电视剧发行十周年而拍摄的。
I hope you have a most happy and prosperous New Year.
'It's been low for a while, says Lee (last year it was ranked 196 out of 200). 'What probably pushed it to the bottom is that several things got worse job prospects decreased, the average salary continued to fall, and work hours continued to rise. Those factors also make the job more stressful.'
2.Nobody here can answer any questions you have about fencing. Google it.
37岁的总督瑞奇·罗塞略在午夜宣誓后提出了几项用于缓解短期危机的措施。其中包括一项公投的提案将询问投票公民是否同意建州或独立。许多人认为,波多黎各的政治地位产生了长达十年的危机,近年来已促使超过20万波多黎各人逃往美国大陆。
这几年的实践可以证明,中国经济“硬着陆”论可以休矣。我们会长期保持中高速增长,并迈向中高端水平。
该银行在其报告中称:中国是否减持库存将成为2017年棉花和糖市场的主要价格推动因素,玉米、大豆或植物油可能也是如此。
什么温度的葡萄酒最好喝(图)
We will ensure workplace safety and people's lives.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

锐财经:城镇化激发经济发展潜力

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The Swiss school came top of the list of 90 best masters programmes worldwide in 2016, winning its sixth consecutive crown.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 首尔坚称这些活动分子有派发单张的民主权利,但要求他们不要过度激怒北韩。
  • 明年楼市库存压力仍难减 三成大中城市同比上涨
  • 伯利兹城靠近墨西哥和加勒比海,各处都是露天的街头小吃摊,为游客们提供了很多较实惠的用餐选择。
  • 魔方陈驰:长租行业帮助各地房地产市场去库存
  • 几家大型对冲基金的资产规模,占据了该行业的大半江山。各家的回报率相差巨大。每个像威廉o阿克曼旗下潘兴广场那样的大赢家,都对应着一个像约翰o保尔森旗下优势基金那样的大输家。投资者选择对冲基金,是冲着其“非相关收益”,意即与大盘走向背道而行的趋势。今年,他们绝对是获得了“逆市”的收益,可惜是在大盘表现出色的情况下“逆市”。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 2017年LED产业的几种发展趋势预测
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • “有个人说自己去上厕所,然后就再没回来。”
  • 根据美国国会预算办公室(Congressional Budget Office)的数据,税收增加与支出削减将2013年的经济增速拉低了约1.5个百分点。许多预测人士认为,2014年财政因素对经济增速的拖累幅度将是2013年的三分之一或更低。牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)的美国经济学家达科(Gregory Daco)称,今年政治方面的确定性更高。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

退租疑似甲醛房被索违约金 部分中介速装速租

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